Archive for the ‘Biblical History’ Category

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The Maccabee – Against the Documentary Hypothesis

October 15, 2011

‘Is not my word like fire,” declares the LORD, ‘and like a hammer that breaks a rock in pieces?’

– Jeremiah 23:29

Understanding the Documentary Hypothesis

Historically speaking, the theory that Moses ‘did not write the Pentateuch actually has been around for more than a millennium.’ Even so, the vast majority of believers, both Jew and Christian, ‘still maintained that Moses was its author’ well into the 17th century. It was around this time that the Dutch-Jewish philosopher Benedict Spinoza began to attack this common-held belief about Moses. This led to his eventual excommunication from Judaism by the Rabbinnical authorities some years later. This ‘questioning’ of the authorship of the Bible continued in the following manner:

– French physician Jean Astruc created the original Documentary Hypothesis in 1753 by listing the different names of God used in the Torah.

– After many changes and alterations, Karl Graf came out with a revised version of the ‘initial hypothesis in the mid-nineteenth century.’

– Julius Wellhausen then resummarized Graf’s Documentary Hypothesis and proceeds to preach and promote it ‘in European and American scholarly circles.’

– In the end, the refutation of Moses as author of the Torah, known as as the Documentary Hypothesis, also became ‘known to many as the Graf-Wellhausen Hypothesis.’

Since these earlier times, attacks upon the Judeo-Christian belief in the authorship of Moses and the first five books of the Bible have, in fact, ‘been thrust consistently into the faces of Christians.’ A staunch belief in the Documentary Hypothesis has become near universal in secular settings. One sources notes that this still unproven theory has garnered a cult-like belief in others, especially non-believers:

It is becoming increasingly popular to believe this theory…Numerous commentaries, religious journals, and Web sites consistently promote it. And many professors who teach religious courses espouse it. Undoubtedly, it is champion among the topics discussed in classes on a critical introduction to the Bible. In most “scholarly” circles, if one does not hold to the Documentary Hypothesis (or at least some form of it), he is considered fanatical and uneducated.

To sum it up, the Documentary Hypothesis boldly claims that, instead of being written by Moses around 1,200-1,500 years ago, the ‘Pentateuch was compiled from four original source documents -designated as J, E, D, and P.’ It further contends that these four theoretical documents were all created ‘by different authors, and eventually were compiled into the Pentateuch by a redactor (editor).’ According to the classic Documentary Hypothesis, the conjectured dates of authorship can be seen in the following manner:

Alleged Authorship of the Torah

I. The J (Yahwehist) document was supposedly written around 850 B.C

II. The E (Elohist) document was supposedly written around 750 B.C.

III. The D (Deuteronomist) document was supposedly written around 620 B.C.

IV. The P (Priestly) document was supposedly written around 500 B.C.

V. The R (Redactor) document, or final version of the Torah, was supposedly written around 200 B.C.

These unproven, and basically unprovable, source documents, have now been accepted as historical fact by nearly all of those who ascribe to the Documentary Hypothesis. In many ways, the main point of their claims has to openly and boldly deny that Moses wrote the first five books of the Holy Bible. This is spite of the fact that these dates have no scientific validity whatsoever. As one scholar notes:

Every dating of the pentateuchal ‘sources’ rests on purely hypothetical assumptions, which ultimately only have standing through the consensus of scholars.

– R. Rendtorff

Some believe there is an underlying reason why the followers of the Documentary Hypothesis insist on such late dating of the authorship of the Torah. Their real goal may little more than an attempt to discredit Scriptures and, with it, Christianity. The denial of Moses as the author of the Torah usually provides a stepping stone for further denials concerning the Bible. Here are just a few statements by those who believe in the Documentary Hypothesis:

One of the certain results of modern Bible study has been the discovery that the first five books of the Old Testament were not written by Moses.

– Gottwald, 1959

It is obvious that the Book of Genesis was not written by a single author (Moses).

-Rendtorff, 1998

The most determined biblicist can see that there is no way Moses could have written the Torah.

– McKinsey, 1995

At present, however, there is hardly a biblical scholar in the world actively working on the problem who would claim that the Five Books of Moses were written by Moses – or by anyone per­son.

– Dr. Richard E. Friedman, University of California at San Diego

This conventional wisdom and denial of Moses’ authorship has now managed to permeate the entire world of academia and Biblical scholarship. Indeed, it is a given that statements such as those just cited ‘have made their way into thousands of classrooms.’ The results are quite tragic, as more and more students become non-believers due to this pernicious fallacy known as the Documentary Hypothesis. One source notes: ‘Sadly, before hearing skeptics and liberal scholars present their ineffectual arguments for such beliefs, students frequently become so spellbound by the intellectual façade and bold affirmations of certainty that they rarely even consider the evidence at hand.’ The evidence, if seen and studied carefully, still seems to indicate that Moses was indeed the real author of the Pentateuch. The scholarly facts, even today, are as follows:

The fact is that there are Old Testament specialists who have been trained in schools like Harvard and Princeton and Chicago University, who have received earned doctorates, who have become skilled in all of the relevant languages and archeological discoveries, who have attended and participated in all of the leading scholarly conventions, and who have authored texts that are studied by college and seminary students all over the world, who still adhere to the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch.

Given all of the misleading scholarship out there these days, it should come as no surprise that when Andrew Brown, author of The Darwin Wars, wrote about a conversation he had with England’s leading Rabbi Jonathan Sacks, he became flabbergasted when ‘Dr. Sacks defended the proposition that Moses wrote (or dictated) the first five books of the Bible’. Andrew Brown surprised response was simply: ‘That is the most shocking thing I have ever heard an intellectual say.’ Nevertheless, more and more prominent scholars are now beginning to break with Wellhausen’s Documentary Hypothesis and even going so far as to attack it as illogical and irrational. Here is one disgruntled scholar on the need for change:

Redaction history and tradition history are [not helpful]…in explaining the origin of the Pentateuch. There is a preference for the view that much of the Yahwistic material was written later than originally thought, implying a much longer period of oral and written transmission of many of the Pentateuchal narratives. The way literary criticism and tradition history were applied in the past is largely invalidated by current folklore research which should be used as a corrective as well as to devise a new theory on how the Pentateuch originated.

– Van Dyk, P. J., Current Trends in Pentateuch Criticism.

Most importantly, scholars of various stripes are also beginning to tear away at the specifics of the Documentary Hypothesis, most notably the four source document theory (J, E, P and D), which presupposes four unique original sources for the Pentateuch. Noted scholar Professor Kitchen now admits that ‘even the most ardent advocate of the documentary theory must admit that we have as yet no single scrap of external, objective…tangible, evidence for either the existence or history of ‘J’, ‘E’, or any other alleged source-documents’. His admission of error is starting to become more typical among the liberal circles of secular Biblical scholarship. Indeed, one writer claims that ‘certain liberals have been forced to admit that the JEPD hypothesis is really without merit.’ Just recently, a man named Umberto Cassuto, a professor at the University of Jerusalem, wrote a book called The Documentary Hypothesis. In the book, he freely confesses that the main arguments for Wellhausen’s theory are ‘without substance.’ Furthermore, he states that the entire Documentary Hypothesis field of study happens to be ‘founded on air’ and will inevitably become ‘null and void’. In summary, ‘there simply is no support for the documentary theories of the higher critics, and there is much evidence against them.’

Refuting the Documentary Hypothesis

The Documentary Hypothesis, sometimes called ‘the Graf-Wellhausen hypothesis after the two men, K.H. Graf and Julius Wellhausen, who gave it its classic expression’, presupposes that the five Books of Moses, namely the Torah or Pentateuch, are actually derived from four different source documents, called J (Yahwist), E (Elohist), D (Deuteronomist), and P (Priestly Code). These original sources can be organized in the following manner:

J- Starting with Genesis 2:4, it includes large portions of Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy

E- Includes Genesis 15 and Exodus 3:15 for example

D- Includes most of Deuteronomy

P– Starting with Genesis 1:1, it includes large portions of Genesis, Exodus, and Numbers and all of Leviticus.

When going about the business of refuting the Documentary Hypothesis it is necessary to organize the arguments in fairly precise manner. One Biblical scholar R.N. Whybray, as well as others, has concluded that ‘the Documentary Hypothesis is founded on four presuppositions.’ Those four assumptions, with the pertinent refutation just beneath them, can be listed as follows:

ASSUMPTION: An evolutionary, unilinear approach to Israelite history.

REFUTATION: Most scholars agree that ‘Wellhausen built his theory on a now-discredited evolutionary philosophy with its roots in the thought of G.W.F. Hegel.’ Since then, the whole philosophy of Hegelianism has been thoroughly discredited. Because of this, it seems more than likely ‘that the history of Israelite religion cannot be portrayed in the simple, highly evolutionary manner that Wellhausen thought possible.’

 

ASSUMPTION: The possibility of dividing the Pentateuchal texts on the basis of stylistic criteria.

REFUTATION: Some of the earliest proponents of the Documentary Hypothesis claimed ‘they could easily separate one text from another on the basis of style.’ In reality, the entire Torah is written in standard Biblical Hebrew. The only real way a single style could ever really be found for each source document, namely J, E, P, and D, ‘would be if each monotonously and rigorously maintained a highly idiosyncratic style.’ This has not been the case when it comes to the Pentateuch.

 

ASSUMPTION: A simple compilation of documents by redactors.

REFUTATION: According to the claims of the Documentary Hypothesis, later editors of the Torah, called redactors, supposedly used the documents they had availible and then proceeded to use a ‘cut-and-paste’ procedure where they simply cut ‘up each document and then joining the whole into a continuous narrative.’ There is no actual proof that this sort of organizational effort ever existed. Indeed, ‘no true analogy to this somewhat bizarre editorial procedure is available.’

 

ASSUMPTION: Easy determination of the purposes and methods behind the documents and redactions.

REFUTATION: The founders of the Documentary Hypothesis believed they would be able to easily ‘deduce the purposes and methods of the redactors, despite the fact that enormous cultural differences existed between the scholars who studied Genesis and the men who wrote it.’ Scholars then began to speculate in a somewhat bizaare manner about the aims of the original writers and later editors (redactors). To be specific ‘it was assumed that each writer aimed to produce a single, continuous history but would tolerate no inconsistency, repetition, or narrative digressions.’ However, the editors (redactors) ‘were said to be utterly oblivious to every kind of contradiction and repetition.’ These strange assumptions bear no historical accuracy or proof that they are true.

It must be emphasized that the Documentary Hypothesis blithely assumes that the Torah was originally made up of four documents which were all ‘first composed as continuous, single narratives and only later were brought together and edited into the present work.’ This false assumption led to many errors in Biblical analysis. To bolster the arguments of the Documentary Hypothesis, many different ‘modifications were proposed.’ Problems with the original Hypothesis just caused their reasoning to become that much more complex and illogical. Some of the ‘modifications’ included ‘dividing the four sources into even smaller sources…whereas others reduced the number of sources, questioning the existence of E altogether.’ When it comes to the authorship of the Pentateuch, here are the seven major claims of the Documentary Hypothesis:

The Seven False Claims of the Documentary Hypothesis

1. TWO NAMES OF GOD: Torah Passages which refer to God as Yahveh originate from the J source document, while passages which refer to God as Elohim originate from the E (or P) source document.

2. DUPLICATION AND REPETITION: Genesis contains some duplicate stories and repetitions suggest they were originally portions of two different documents woven together into one text.

3. CONTRADICTION AND CONFUSION: Genesis contains contradictions which ‘indicate the existence of the separate documents.’ This implies ‘that one document had one tradition, but a second had another.’

4. LANGUAGE AND STYLE: The language and style of the original source documents vary. J is a masterful storyteller, while P is prosaic and wordy. Each document also seems to have its own preferred vocabulary.

5. MEANING AND THEOLOGY: Each original source document, ‘when extracted from the present text of Genesis, shows itself to have been a continuous, meaningful piece of literature.’ The source documents appear to have ‘a specific literary and theological purpose behind each.’

6. COMMON SENSE: Even a simple, basic reading of the Torah seem to indicate that the text ‘obviously involve more than one source.’ The best example is Genesis 1 and Genesis 2, ‘which can hardly come from a single source.’

7. PRIESTS AND LEVITES: The confusion over the ‘Israelite priesthood found in the Pentateuch is best explained by the Documentary Hypothesis.’ While some passage imply that all levites are priests, other passages state that only the descendants of Aaron are. This suggests at least two separate sources.

To summarize, it has been these seven claims that the Documentary Hypothesis has done fairly well in trying to explain. The fact of the matter, is that Wellhausen’s theory explains problematic parts of the Torah without ever suggesting that they may not be problems at all. What follows are detailed refutations of the seven false claims of the Documentary Hypothesis.

FALSE CLAIM #1: TWO NAMES OF GOD:

– The theory that passages using Yahveh (J source) or Elohim (E source) for God come from separate sources ‘has been challenged from several directions.’ To cite one example, Genesis 22:11 uses the name Yahweh even though it is considered to be a part of the E (Elohim) source document. Also, at the very beginning of the Torah, there is a combination of the two names into ‘the unusual Yahweh Elohim.’

– Biblical scholar M.H. Segal also shows that the two different divine names, Jahveh and Elohim, are used interchangeably in other Scriptures which are definitely known to have originated from a single source. In short, later Biblical passages use the two names for God as if the author saw the two names as simply different terms for the same God.

– The so-called decision of E and P sources not to use the name Yahveh (J) is simply a fictitious assumption. Likewise, there is ‘absolutely no reason that J should avoid’ using the word Elohim.

– The unexplained use of the two different names for God can also be surmised without resorting to the Documentary Hypothesis. In sum, Biblical scholar Umberto Cassuto claims that these two names simply ‘bring out different aspects of the character of God.’ Yahweh is seen as the covenant name of God, emphasizing his special relationship to Israel, just as Elohim speaks of God’s universality as God of all earth. Seen simply, ‘Elohim is what God is and Yahweh is who He is.’

– Another scholar named Segal also contends that ‘the interchange of the divine names is often for the sake of variety or reflects popular usage’.

– Biblical scholar Whybray proposes that ‘the alternation of names may be unconscious because of the [singular] identity of the two names’.

– It can rightfully be claimed that Yahveh and Elohim have ‘semantic overlap’. When the emphasis is about God as the ‘universal deity…Elohim is used’. Similarly, when a passage that mentions ‘God as covenant savior…Yahweh is more likely to be utilized’. Also, when neither aspect of God ‘is particularly stressed, the names may be alternated for variety or indeed for no specific reason’.

– The use of Yahveh and Elohim as different names of God doesn’t necessary imply two different sources for the text. Indeed, it appears there are ‘many examples from Egyptian and Mesopotamian sources of a single god being called by several names in a single text.’ It should be also noted that no ‘Egyptologist would ever use divine names for source criticism’.

– In conclusion: ‘the criterion of divine names, the historical and evidential starting point for the Documentary Hypothesis, is without foundation. It is based on misinterpretation, mistranslation, and lack of attention to extrabiblical sources’.

 

FALSE CLAIM #2: DUPLICATION AND REPETITION

– Some believe ‘the use of doublets and repetition as evidence for multiple documents in Genesis is perhaps of all the arguments the most persuasive for the modern student’. In reality, it is ‘the most spurious and abused piece of evidence’. Given everything, the use of duplication and replication in Biblical passages simply signifies ‘rhetorical concepts’ which made use of these exact forms of expression.

– On the contrary, when it comes to many ancient texts ‘there is no stronger indication that only a single document is present than parallel accounts.’ The use of what is called ‘Doublets’, menaing ‘two separate stories that closely parallel one another, are the very stuff of ancient narrative.’ They are, in fact, precisely ‘what the discriminating audience sought in a story.’

– Given the examples of other documents, it can be rightfully claimed that ‘simple repetition, first of all, is common in ancient Near Eastern literature.’ This can be seen ‘in the Ugaritic Epic of Keret’ where a certain King Keret receives specific instructions to go to the land of Udum, ruled by King Pabil, and then demand to marry the King’s daughter named Hurriya. The carrying out of these instructions is simply a repetition of what the original instructions actually state in the text.

– Repetition in the Bible is found in both the Old and New Testament. One involves the Book of Genesis 24, where the servant of Abraham meets the future wife of Isaac and the encounter is then repeated as a story. In the Book of Acts, Paul’s encounter with Christ on his way to Damascus is described three different times (Acts 9:1-19, 22:3-16, 26:9-18).

– In summary, and ‘in light of the love for repetition and parallelism in Hebrew narrative and poetry’, it should come as no surprise that ‘Hebrew narrative is sometimes redundant even within a single story.’ This practice may seem meaningless or pointless in the English language, but in its original tongue it is considered to be quite beautiful.

 

FALSE CLAIM #3: CONTRADICTION AND CONFUSION

– The Biblical account of Noah and the Flood first states in Genesis 6:2 that he should bring one pair of every kind of animal, but then it says in Genesis 7:2 to bring seven pairs of clean animals, This contradiction can easily be explained in that ‘provision had to be made to ensure that there would be sufficient livestock after the flood.’

– The entire flood story, according to the Documentary Hypothesis, is actually two sources (J and P) combined together to create one contradictory story. The reality is that ‘recent research has demonstrated the whole narrative to be far more coherent than was once recognized.’

– Some followers of Wellhausen’s theory have attempted to cite a discrepancy between the flood’s 40 days of rain and also its apparent 150 additional days of rain. This argument is completely wrong-headed and a misreading of Genesis. In reality, ‘the present chronology in the text is not the confusion it is sometimes implied to be.’

– One scholar named Emerton still insists that ‘there is a discrepancy between the 150 days of rain and the 40 days of rain’ in the story of Noah and the flood. To be sure, ‘the text nowhere implies that the rain lasted 150 days.’ Instead, the 150 days refers to ‘the time from the beginning of the flood until the water had abated enough for the ark to ground.’ With this in mind, the flood story can be said to be both ‘structurally unified and formally of a type of literature (flood narrative) that is far older’ than Wellhausen’s theory dates it.

– In conclusion, the story of Noah and the flood uses an ‘ancient narrative technique, as evidenced in its profound concern for narrative structure’. Given everything written down in Genesis concerning the flood, this account also ‘cannot be said to be chronologically confused.’

 

FALSE CLAIM #4: LANGUAGE AND STYLE

– The Documentary Hypothesis claims to have found ‘radically different styles’ of writing in the Pentateuch and finds this to be proof that it actually had at least two different sources (J and P). This is simply the ‘result of artificially dividing the text.’

– So-called differences in writing style found in the Torah cannot be proven because nobody knows anything ‘of the common speech of the people of ancient Israel’. Differing word choices could simply be ‘for the sake of a special nuance in a given circumstance, or indeed for the sake of variety’.

– Recent development of computer analysis of the Biblical text now shows that the so-called triple authorship underlying the Book of Genesis is unlikely. Instead, ‘there is massive evidence that the pre-Biblical triplicity [J, E, and P] of Genesis’ may well be a unity instead. The Documentary Hypothesis claim that Genesis was ‘worked over by a late and gifted editor into a trinity’ is basically considered to be false.

 

FALSE CLAIM #5: MEANING AND THEOLOGY

– The original Documentary Hypothesis contended that the evidence for multiple source documents, which then became the Pentateuch, included differences in metaphysical meaning and theology found in the texts themselves. The fact remains, however, that splitting a text into two opposing sources is actually quite easy. In short, opponents of Wellhausen have clearly proven ‘it is not difficult to separate a single Biblical narrative into two artificially complete documents.’ Because of this, any ‘theological analysis’ becomes ‘all the more tenuous.’

– Even the most staunch supporter of the Documentary Hypothesis has trouble these days in taking seriously any of the broad or sweeping generalizations concerning ‘the theological background of Genesis’.

– Under continuing assault by recent Bible scholars, the theological arguments promoting ‘the Elohist has disappeared from view entirely and the Yahwist is fast fading from existence.’ One scholar named Whybray has gone far in showing that ‘consensus for a theology of the Yahwist among critical scholars is collapsing.’

– In conclusion, the hypothesis claiming theological differences in the Pentateuch ‘has no value as a guide for continued research.’

 

FALSE CLAIM #6: COMMON SENSE

– Appealing to their view of the first five Books of Moses, which presupposes Moses did not write it, the Documentary Hypothesis and its adherents claim that common sense dictates in determining that the Pentateuch must have had more than one author who lived much later than Moses. However, recent authors who support the Documentary Hypothesis are now urging more ‘caution’ strongly suggesting that confidence in Wellhausen’s theory is waning and ‘that confidence in the criteria has eroded considerably’.

– In growing desperation, supporters of Wellhausen are starting to rely heavily ‘on specific texts as justification for continued adherence to the hypothesis.’ This is spite of the fact that interpretation of these specific Biblical passages are quite varied and heavily disputed today.

– One scholar makes the point that, even though it may be possible that Genesis 1 and Genesis 2 may originate from separate sources, these particular sources most probably have ‘nothing to do with the four documents of the Documentary Hypothesis.’

– In conclusion, no matter what is involved ‘there is no text in Genesis which is best explained by the Documentary Hypothesis.’

 

FALSE CLAIM #7: PRIESTS AND LEVITES

– The Documentary Hypothesis contends that, since there is a discrepancy as to who is actually a Priest (a Levite or descendant of Aaron), there must be at least two authors responsible for the Torah. It also claims to have the ‘best explanation of why the term Levite is used inconsistently in the Old Testament.’ Nonetheless, there is little historical evidence to prove this to be the case.

– The reality is that, when it comes to the question of who exactly is a Priest, ‘a better solution can be obtained by reading the Pentateuch as a work that was substantially produced, as the text affirms, during the period of the Exodus.’

– Similar attempts at finding original source documents underlying the Greek classics the Iliad and the Odyssey proved to be popular in the last century, but are now considered little more than ‘antiquarian scholarly curiosities.’ It is to be hoped ‘that the same fate awaits their sister theory, the Documentary Hypothesis.’

Judaism’s Refutation of the Documentary Hypothesis

Although critics accuse biblical writers of revealing erroneous information, their claims continue to evaporate with the passing of time and the compilation of evidence.

– ApologeticsPress.org

Remember, the main theory of Wellhausen and company is that the Torah ‘was written by several different authors between about 950 BCE through 450 BCE, at which point it was assembled into the present single document, probably by Ezra.’ One should keep in mind that ‘this hypothesis is pretty much universally accepted by secularists.’ Even so, Judaism has a few resounding refutations to this theory. They can summarized as follows:

The Samaritan Pentateuch- The Samaritans have their own five books of Moses which is nearly identical to the Torah. However, Somaritans ‘have not shared a common tradition with Jews since the division of the United Monarchy following the death of King Solomon.’ This means that their Torah, and indeed both Torahs, must have written previous to Ezra (450 BC). This is because the Samaritans ‘would not have accepted a book composed by Ezra.’

Mention of Jerusalem- There is absolutely no mention of Jerusalem in the Torah, meaning that it was probably written at the time of Samuel or before, because the city of Jerusalem had become ‘the center of Judaism from the time of King David (1000 BC) up until the present.’

Religious Documentation- If Ezra (450 BC) assembled the Torah from different documents (J, P, E, and D) then there would most probably be evidence of their existence somewhere in the historical record (950-450 BC). This has not occurred. In fact, ‘no copies of the alleged pre-Ezra documents have ever been discovered anywhere, nor are they ever mentioned in any ancient literature.’ Logically speaking, if the pre-Ezra had been considered so religiously important to Judaism ‘it is implausible that they quickly and entirely disappeared.’

Talmud Without Torah- At the same time that scholars of the Documentary Hypothesis reject the Torah as historically false, they also place great emphasis on a certain passage in the Talmud (Bava Basra 109b) that speaks of the existence ‘in ancient Israel a priesthood descended from Moses’. From this single verse, they claim that these priests must have written the E source document.

Two Names for God- The Talmud many times mentions God’s two character traits – the trait of mercy and the trait of justice. Mercy is represented by the name YHVH while justice is represented by Elohim (Midrash Braishis Rabbah 73:3).

Different Styles in the Torah- Advocates of the Documentary Hypothesis point out that different parts of the Torah are written in different styles. There is a simple explanation for this. The Talmud Tractate Megilah 31b states that ‘Deuteronomy was written by Moses – it is a speech given by Moses, rather than having been simply dictated to him by God. Based upon this, we can understand why different portions of the Torah are written in different styles although they actually have a Mosaic authorship.’

In conclusion, the scholars who developed the Documentary Hypothesis were woefully ignorant of Judaism and Jewish folk-lore. Because of this, Judaism’s refutation of Wellhausen’s theology is especially convincing and accurate. Amused by all the fuss, one Jewish scholar simply states: ‘Rather than refuting the single authorship of the Torah, Bible critics have merely rediscovered the midrash.’

The Slow Death of the Documentary Hypothesis

If new approaches to the text, such as literary criticism of the type advanced here, deem the Documentary Hypothesis unreasonable and invalid, then source critics will have to rethink earlier conclusions and start anew.

– The Redaction of Genesis by Rendsburg

Is the Documentary Hypothesis a dying theory? Does this mean that Biblical scholarship can now move on into the 21st century, instead of being stuck in a discredited 19th analysis made by Wellhausen and others? Did Moses, in fact, write the first five Books of the Bible? According to some scholars, the answer to all these questions is yes. Even the on-line reference site Wikipedia, which is still in favor of the Documentary Hypothesis, is honest enough to admit it:

While the terminology and insights of the documentary hypothesis-notably its claim that the Pentateuch is the work of many hands and many centuries, and that its final form belongs to the middle of the 1st millennium BC-continue to inform scholarly debate about the origins of the Pentateuch, it no longer dominates that debate as it did for the first two thirds of the 20th century.

– Wikipedia, Documentary Hypothesis

The number of former believers and ex-followers of Wellhausen, and his theory concerning the authorship and dates of the Pentateuch, happens to be growing larger with each passing day. Many of them have realized that the general claim about the Torah being based upon four sources, namely the J, E, D and P source documents, is, in the end, utter nonsense. Some have gotten quite angry with Wellhausen’s continuing success and acceptance among modern Biblical scholars. Here are just a few opponents of the Documentary Hypothesis as it stands today:

The time has long passed for scholars of every theological persuasion to recognize that the Graf-Wellhausen theory, as a starting point for continued research, is dead. The Documentary Hypothesis and the arguments that support it have been effectively demolished by scholars from many different theological perspectives and areas of expertise.

– BibleArcheology.org

Gorden J. Wenham points out that there has been a significant change regarding the Wellhausen documentary hypothesis. In the past, rejection of this hypothesis had been from orthodox Jews and conservative Christians. However, questioning of the documentary hypothesis today has come from mainline scholarship.

– HISTORICAL CRITICISM OF THE BIBLE: METHODOLOGY OR IDEOLOGY? by Eta Linnemann

The whole structure of the Documentary Hypothesis is so vitiated with obscurantism and circular reasoning on the basis of unproved and unprovable hypotheses that it hardly deserves the status of true scholarship at all. It appears rather to be an exercise in biased subjectivism that shuns any serious consideration of conflicting evidence.

– Who Wrote the Bible? A Summary Critique, by Gleason L. Archer, Jr

The Documentary Hypothesis must be abandoned. Regardless of the theological presuppositions with which one approaches the text, and regardless of whether one wishes to affirm the tradition of Mosaic authorship or move in new directions, one must recognize the hypothesis to be methodologically unsound.

– BibleArcheology.org

Wellhausen’s Documentary Hypothesis has come to an end. Other major scholarly views of the 20th century…are cratering. Nothing substantial, however, has replaced these views.

– Rendtorff, Rolf, The Paradigm Is Changing: Hopes – and Fears

It is now accepted that the documentary hypothesis is hampered with serious difficulties.

– Van Dyk, P. J., Current Trends in Pentateuch Criticism.

We must reject the Documentary Theory as an explanation of the composition of the Pentateuch. The theory is complicated, artificial, and anomalous. It is based on unproved assumptions. It uses unreliable criteria for the separation of the text into component documents.

– Moses H. Segal, professor emeritus at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem

The Wellhausen hypothesis...must be perceived as an exercise in subjectivism rather than a scientific treatment of the objective data bearing upon the date of the composition of the Pentateuch. The whole concept of differing recensions of the Mosaic tradition, a J-document originating in Judah and an E-document developed in the Northern Kingdom, has in this century been called into serious question by disillusioned Wellhausians like Wilhelm Moeller, B.D. Eerdmans, Johannes Pedersen, and Ivan Engnell, all of whom completely reject the whole Documentary Hypothesis as an artificial, modern occidental type of interpretation totally unsuited and irrelevant to ancient Semitic literature.

– Who Wrote the Bible? A Summary Critique, by Gleason L. Archer, Jr

These days, the old truths of Wellhausen’s Documentary Hypothesis are becoming less and less accepted with each passing year and continue to be thoroughly discredited by a growing number of scholars and researchers. Indeed, the assumptions of the past concerning the actual origins of the Pentateuch ‘have disappeared, and in their place scholars are confronted by competing theories which are discouragingly numerous’ as well as ‘exceedingly complex’. The simple historical facts of Wellhausen’s theory are now gone with the wind. As one noted scholar opines:

The theories current in Old Testament studies, however brilliantly conceived and elab­orated were mainly established in a vacuum with little or no reference to the Ancient Near East, and initially too often in accordance with a priori philosophical and literary principles.

– Kenneth Kitchens, Ancient Orient and the Old Testament

The tried and true J, E, P, and D source documents, which continues to be the foundational cornerstone for the Documentary Hypothesis have also become invalidated by more and more current researchers. In his work The Redaction of Genesis, scholar Rendsburg openly proclaims that ‘the standard division of Genesis into J, E, and P strands should be discarded’. He blames their inadequacy on the fact that the Documentary Hypothesis is an old 19th century theology that has been hopelessly outdated. With today’s growing knowledge about the ancient world, Rendsburg states ‘there is much more uniformity and much less fragmentation in the book of Genesis than generally assumed’. This means that scholars are once again facing the same conclusion of the past, that Moses truly is the author of the Pentateuch . In the meantime, the Documentary Hypothesis, and all that it came with it, continues to pass away, to die, slowly but surely.

Moses Wrote the Torah, the Pentateuch

An objective and truly scientific handling of the evidence can only lead to the conclusion that Jesus Christ and the New Testament apostles were absolutely correct in assuming the genuineness of the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch.

– Who Wrote the Bible? A Summary Critique, by Gleason L. Archer, Jr

When one finally becomes convinced that the Documentary Hypothesis is indeed a incorrect theory, the question remains as to who wrote the Torah, also called the Pentateuch. Traditional Judaism has always believed that Moses was the author of the first five Books of the Bible and Christianity followed suit in the centuries after its formation. There is still every reason to believe that this is the historical truth even though the existence of Moses still cannot be scientifically proven. Considering the severity of laws espoused in the Torah, many Bible researchers say this indicates that it must have been written by Moses, before the people ever slipped into idolatrous practices. One auther states the following:

Consider the implications of Moses’ instructions to his people as recorded in Deuteronomy 13 and 17…In these two chapters we find the death penalty prescribed for any individual, family, or community that became involved in idol-worship. In the time of Josiah, or even in the time of Hezekiah, there was scarcely a community in all of the kingdom of Judah that was not infected with idolatry. Had such a law been propounded and carried out with rigor, it is safe to say that at least 50 percent of the total population would have been stoned to death. No school of prophets or priests would ever have ventured to propound such severe measures…these passages in Deuteronomy fits only a time in the history of Israel when the entire nation was committed to the worship of Yahweh alone. There is no known period which fits into this framework but the time of Moses and Joshua.

Two recent books also bolster the claim that the Book of Genesis may well be a unified document with only one actual author. One of these is called Before Abraham Was, by Kikawada and Quinn, and it shows ‘an INCREDIBLE thematic unity and artistry of the composer of Genesis 1-11.’ The other book is The Redaction of Genesis, by Rendsburg. This book goes far in proving that there truly ‘an INCREDIBLE linguistic unity and artistry of the composer of all of Genesis.’ Slowly, more and more modern scholars are returning to the belief that the Torah was written at a much earlier date than that espoused by the Documentary Hypothesis. Here is just one example of this phenomenon:

In the light of these considerations, the objective evidence of the text and of all pertinent historical records bearing upon the career of Israel leads us back to the genuineness of the Mosaic date as the only plausible period for the composition of the Pentateuch…Suffice it to say that the indications in the Pentateuch of a pre-Conquest time of composition of the books of Moses are altogether compelling.

– Who Wrote the Bible? A Summary Critique, by Gleason L. Archer, Jr

In Judaism, Genesis through Deuteronomy was always considered to be a singular work, usually called the Book of the Law. This is cited in 2 Chronicles 25:4 and Mark 12:26. This makes good sense because even a quick glance at the content ‘of its individual components will confirm that each book presupposes the one that precedes it.’ One scholar notes astutely:

Without Genesis, Exodus reads like a book begun midway; without Exodus, Leviticus is a mystery; and so on. They were not intended to be five separate volumes in a common category, but rather, are five divisions of the same book. Hence, the singular references: “the Law” or “the Book.”

– ApologeticsPress.org

Given this tradition, it seems incredible that the Documentary Hypothesis was ever believed or copied. One should remember, however, that the propenents of Wellhausen’s theory were neither Jewish nor Christian believers. It is safe to assume that they had ulterior motives in creating the Documentary Hypothesis. They knew full well that to prove that Moses did not write the Torah was to also discredit, and perhaps eventually, destroy the Judeo-Christian tradition. As one author contends:

Prove that Moses did not write the books of the Pentateuch and you prove that Jesus was totally mistaken and not the infallible Son of God he claimed to be. Upon your faith in Moses as the writer of the five books attributed to him rests also your faith in Jesus as the Son of God. You cannot believe in Jesus Christ without believing what Moses wrote.

– Genesis and Evolution, by M.R. DeHaan

One should also take into account the fact that the authorship of Moses is a given througout the Holy Bible, including the New Testament. Within the Pentateuch itself, one can read numerous times about how Moses wrote the law of God. Here are just a few pertinent passages from Scriptures:

– Moses wrote all the words of the LORD. (Exodus 24:4)

– The LORD said unto Moses, ‘Write thou these words…’ (Exodus 34:27).

– Moses wrote their goings out according to their journeys by the commandment of the LORD. (Numbers 33:2).

– Moses wrote this law and delivered it unto the priests. (Deuteronomy 31:9).

– The law was given through Moses. (John 1:17)

– And beginning from Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted to them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself. (Luke 24:27)

– For Moses from generations of old hath in every city them that preach him, being read in the synagogues every Sabbath. (Acts 15:21)

In addition, authors of the New Testament ‘showed no hesitation in affirming that Moses wrote the Pentateuch.’ Even Paul agreed with this, stating: ‘For Moses writes about the righteousness which is of the law,’ It is rather ironic that ‘both Jesus’ disciples and His enemies recognized and accepted the books of Moses.’ Christian believers should take care to understand that the authorship of the Torah should not be taken lightly and should feel assured in the belief that Moses wrote it. One scholar notes:

A final reason that one must defend the Mosaic authorship of the Pentateuch, instead of sitting by idly and claiming that “it doesn’t really matter who wrote it,” is because Jesus Himself acknowledged that “the Law” came from Moses….The truth is, by claiming that Moses did not write the books of the Pentateuch, one essentially is claiming that Jesus was mistaken.

– ApologeticsPress.org

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

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The Maccabee – Jesus Christ Condemns Masturbation

October 4, 2011

‘Is not my word like fire,” declares the LORD, ‘and like a hammer that breaks a rock in pieces?’

– Jeremiah 23:29

This may seem controversial to some, but the proofs that Jesus Christ condemns masturbation in the Gospels is fairly obvious and straight-forward. What probably seems confusing to some is how the innocent Jesus Christ even knew about masturbation.Remember, He was thirty-something carpenter who probably knew about at least some of these things from contact with His fellow workers.

How did Jesus know about throwing pearls, namely ejaculating into the open air? Well, the answer, in short, is that He had older brothers and a strict Jewish mother who taught Him to never masturbate. He probably also witnessed one or more acts of ritual prostitution where one male would have sex with a prostitute while the other males would masturbate, throwing their pearls of white semen all around when ejaculation was achieved. Without further delay, here is the exact understanding:

THE BASIC CLAIM:

Jesus Christ condemns both masturbation and prostitution using allusion and metaphor

THE BASIC METAPHOR:

THE GOSPEL PASSAGE: Do not give what is holy to dogs, and do not throw your pearls before swine, or they will trample them under their feet and turn and tear you to pieces. (Matthew 7:6)

THE INTERPRETATION: Do not have sex with prostitutes and ejaculate into them. Do not masturbate and ejaculate your sperm into the open air. Remain completely chaste or the demonic world will blow you away.

THE BASIC REASONING:

I. GOSPEL VERSE #1: Do not give what is holy to dogs = Do not have sex with prostitutes and ejaculate in their mouths and rectums. It is demonic.

II. GOSPEL VERSE #2: Do not throw pearls before swine = Do not masturbate and ejaculate to XXX (666) pornography. It is demonic.

Now, what follows is a piece-by-piece examination of the exact words of the Gospels, using historical and traditional interpretations and Biblical analysis. As it clearly reveals, Jesus Christ may well have been using multiple meanings in His sayings and parables, but at least one of them is obviously the earthy, but common sense, notion that one should never masturbate, a uniquely Jewish doctrine not shared by the Pagans, who masturbated frequently and openly. Here is the full analysis of the the two Gospel verses:

I. GOSPEL VERSE #1: Do not give what is holy to dogs

EXACT WORDS: What is holy

TRANSLATION: Your male virgin (or non-virgin) manhood and/or sperm

EXACT WORDS: Dogs

TRANSLATION: Ritual Prostitute, possibly young boy

THE BIBLICAL MEANING OF DOGS

OLD TESTAMENT: Thou shalt not bring the hire of a whore, or the price of a dog, into the house of the LORD thy God for any vow: for even both these are abomination unto the LORD thy God. (Deuteronomy 23:18)

INTERPRETATION: The hire of a whore, or the price of a dog – Many public prostitutes dedicated to their gods a part of their impure earnings; and some of these prostitutes were publicly kept in the temple of Venus Melytta, whose gains were applied to the support of her abominable worship. (Commentary on the Bible, by Adam Clarke, 1831)

II. GOSPEL QUOTE #2: Do not throw your pearls before swine

EXACT WORDS: ‘Your pearls’

TRANSLATION: Your white-colored male semen and/or sperm

EXACT WORDS: ‘before swine

TRANSLATION: To ejaculate staring at pornography

THE BIBLICAL MEANING OF SWINE

OLD TESTAMENT: This term ‘Swine’ usually was a code word for wicked, evil non-Jews. or degenerate, unbelieving Gentiles

INTERPRETATION: The actual pigs and swine who earn their fortune in the XXX (666) pornography industry, the demons which sexually prey on those who masturbate.

It is time to ask those fellow American ‘Yankee Doodle’ males, are you men or are you monkeys? Does anyone truly think it is possible to act like monkeys and also think and advance like men forever? I sincerely doubt it, I really do. It’s time to obey Christ in all ways and to stop masturbation throughout society and, in time, the entire world.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

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The Maccabee – Locating Purgatory

October 3, 2011

The Maccabee – Locating Purgatory

‘Is not my word like fire,” declares the LORD, ‘and like a hammer that breaks a rock in pieces?’

– Jeremiah 23:29

 

The Location of Purgatory

Use of the word “Purgatory” (in Latin purgatorium) as a noun appeared perhaps only between 1160 and 1180, giving rise to the idea of Purgatory as a place (what Jacques Le Goff called the “birth” of Purgatory),

– Purgatory, Wikipedia

Most scholars believe that, at the beginning of Christianity, Purgatory was imagined as a completely spiritual realm with no physical location. The early Church Fathers saw Purgatory as a process of purification which most souls underwent before going on to Heaven. The exact doctrine, as promulgated by the earliest Christian theologians, saw Purgatory as a ‘condition or process of purification or temporary punishment’ rather than a physical location, which is meant for the souls of deceased to be purified in preparation for their eventual salvation and entrance into Heaven.

In 1999 Pope John Paul II declared that the term Purgatory does not indicate a place, but “a condition of existence”.

– Purgatory, Wikipedia

However, the theory of Purgatory as being a process, rather than a place, simply reflects the complex intellectual theology of Christian experts rather than the beliefs of common folk as they have actually been throughout the centuries. It seems far more likely that Purgatory has its deeper roots in the Jewish world of the dead, called the Sheol, and the Greco-Roman world of the dead, known as Hades, places sanctified by Jesus Christ when ‘He descended into Hell.’ In both places, it was believed to be specifically located underground in what was generically called the Underworld, a dark world of ghosts (souls), a place most everyone went to after death, before moving on to Paradise, called the “Heart of Abraham’ by the Jews, alternatively designated as ‘Elysium’ by the Greeks and the Romans. In other words, the road to Heaven was considered to be down and through rather than above and upwards. One source notes aptly:

The envisioning of Heaven, Hell, and Purgatory as places in the physical universe was never a Church doctrine. Nonetheless, in antiquity and medieval times, Heaven and Hell were widely regarded as places existing within the physical universe: Heaven “above”, in the sky; Hell “below”, in or beneath the earth. Similarly, Purgatory has at times been thought of as a physical location.

– Purgatory, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Thus, it should seem more than obvious that Purgatory has always been thought of as having a general location, namely below the earth and buried ‘six feet under’, to put it bluntly. Saint Frances de Sales hit it on the nail when he claimed Purgatory to be below the earth. Nonetheless, there has been numerous different speculations as to where the world of Purgatory is actually located. Some of them can be described as follows:

 

Precise Location of Purgatory

I. Under the earth

II. In the air

III. By the graves of the dead

IV. Near Church altars

V. Amid past places and occurrences of sin

The general consensus of today is that Purgatory was considered by the early Church Fathers as a condition or process that had no exact material location. Even so, by the Middle Ages, discussion of the precise location of Purgatory once again became a topic of interest. One scholar in particular claims the following:

Medievalist Jacques Le Goff defines the “birth of purgatory”, i.e. the conception of purgatory as a physical place, rather than merely as a state, as occurring between 1170 and 1200.

– History of Purgatory, Wikipedia

According to the French historian Jacques Le Goff, the conception of purgatory as a physical place dates to the 12th century, the heyday of medieval otherworld-journey narratives and of pilgrims’ tales.

– Purgatory, Encyclopedia Britannica

 

Indeed, throughout the Middles Ages, ‘The idea of purgatory as a physical place became widespread on a popular level.’ The contention that Purgatory truly did have a location ‘was defended also by some theologians.’ However, most scholars today tend to assume that ‘the conception of purgatory as a geographically situated place is largely the achievement of medieval Christian piety and imagination.’ Located below are just a few examples of Purgatory as a place rather than just a process, condition, or metaphysical state of being.

In Search of Purgatory

– ‘The legend of St Patrick’s Purgatory’ (Tractatus de Purgatorio Sancti Patricii) which was originally written by Hugh of Saltry, also known as Henry of Sawtry, claimed that the entrance to Purgatory was located on a remote island in Ireland.

– Another Purgatory legend contended that the ‘entrance to Purgatory’ was located in ‘a cave on the volcanic Mount Etna in Sicily

– In his work called ‘Purgatorio’, Dante described Purgatory as ‘a seven-story mountain situated’ on the exact opposite end of the world from the actual city of Jerusalem,

– In 1220, Caesarius of Heisterbach, a Cistercian monk and preacher, theorized ‘that purgatory could be in several places at once.’

– Some prominent scholars claim that Peter the Lombard, who died in 1160, ‘to have contributed significantly to the birth of purgatory in the sense of a physical place.’

– Francis de Sales, a Christian Saint, insisted that Purgatory was located beneath the Earth

– In the Divine Comedy, Dante had his Purgatory as a mountain with seven levels, with each level corresponding to one of the Seven Deadly Sins.

– In 2011, Pope Benedict XVI discussed Saint Catherine of Genoa (1447-1510), stating ‘that in her time the purification of souls (Purgatory) was pictured as a location in space. Nonetheless, she ‘saw Purgatory as a purifying inner fire, such as she experienced in her profound sorrow.’

– After His crucifixion, Jesus Christ is assumed to have ‘descended into Hell,’ and then, with His angels, is presumed to have attacked the stronghold of the Greco-Roman god Hades, along with the Devil. According to some, His presence in Hell sanctified the area, thus creating Purgatory.

Given everything, it must be concluded that, if there truly are spiritual realms of existence, then Purgatory is one of them, a definite ‘place’ in the metaphysical world, a land of the dead filled with the ghosts of those who have passed away, who are patiently awaiting entrance into Heaven.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

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The Maccabee – 10 Simple Reasons why Christianity should Practice Male Circumcision

September 20, 2011

‘Is not my word like fire,” declares the LORD, ‘and like a hammer that breaks a rock in pieces?’

– Jeremiah 23:29

For almost 2,000 years, the consensus of Christianity has been that male circumcision is not required for the faith. Nonetheless, there are numerous and fairly valid reasons to finally reintroduce this practice among Christians throughout the world. There are also some specific passages that seem to suggest that the religion of Judaism should also promote and perhaps even require circumcision among the Gentiles as a part of their own faith.

This is my covenant, which ye shall keep, between me and you and thy seed after thee; Every man child among you shall be circumcised.

– Genesis 17:10

The covenant of male circumcision started with Abraham, the founding father of the three major faiths of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. For Christianity to truly be a part of the House of Abraham, they should circumcise their male children. After all, Christians have fulfilled the prophecy that his descendants would be as numerous as the stars in the sky and the sands upon the seashore. There are some who would claim that Christianity obeys the Seven laws of Noah and that only Jews are actually required to practice circumcision. That is the wrong assumption as the following passages from the Jewish Talmud clearly show:

The Master said: Every precept which was given to the sons of Noah and repeated at Sinai was meant for both [Noachides and Israelites]

– Sanhedrin 59a

But circumcision, which was given to the Sons of Noah, for it is written, ‘Thou shalt keep my covenant, and repeated at Sinai, And in the eighth day the flesh of his foreskin shall be circumcised,’

– Sandhedrin 59b

This law was not learned from the teaching of Moses our teacher, until Ezekiel came and taught, ‘No alien, uncircumcised in heart and uncircumcised in flesh shall enter into my Sanctuary to serve me’

– Sanhedrin 22b

One should remember that the compromise concerning uncircumcised Christian Gentiles found in the Book of Acts was not a unanimous decision and was probably not meant to be an eternal dictate that Christians didn’t need to circumcise their male children. What follows are ten excellent reasons why Christianity should practice circumcision as a standard aspect of their faith:

Ten Reasons Why Christianity should Practice Circumcision

I. The Covenant of Abraham

BIBLE: This is my covenant, which you shall keep…Every man child among you shall be circumcised. (Genesis 17:10)

CONCLUSION: Though many Christians are not blood-related to Abraham, they are a part of his House and subject to the same law. Many followers of Abraham practiced circumcision.

II. The Gospels of Jesus Christ

BIBLE: It is easier for Heaven and earth to pass away, than one part of the law to become invalid. (Luke 16:17)

CONCLUSION: Circumcision is one of the oldest Hebrew laws and was commanded by God Himself. Regardless of past Christian tradition circumcision is still the law.

III. St. Paul’s Obvious Approval

BIBLE: What value is there in circumcision? Much in every way! First of all, they have been entrusted with the very words of God. (Romans 3:1-2)

CONCLUSION: Although St. Paul appears to disapprove of circumcision in some passages, this is because he was fighting against those Christians who still believed it should be required. Paul himself was circumcised.

IV. To Be Like Christ – Christian

BIBLE: When eight days had passed for the circumcising of the child, His name was called Jesus. (Luke 2:21)

CONCLUSION: Jesus Christ was circumcised on the eighth day. To be like Christ is to be circumcised. To be a Christian mother is to be like Mary’s and to circumcise their sons

V. To Be Like the Apostles

BIBLE: And it came to pass, that on the eighth day they came to circumcise the child…His mother answered…he shall be called John.- Luke 1:59-60

CONCLUSION: All of the Apostles and all the Disciples were circumcised. Jesus Christ Himself was circumcised along with His father, his brothers and all his ancestors and early followers.

VI. To Honor the Christian Martyrs

BIBLE: They put to death certain women, that had caused their children to be circumcised.- I Maccabees 1:60

CONCLUSION: St. Peter, St. Jason, St. James, St. Stephen, St. Thomas, , St. John & many other Christian Martyrs were circumcised.

VII. To Renew the Hebrew Tradition

BIBLE: Abraham took…every male among the men of Abraham’s house; and circumcised the flesh of their foreskin.(Genesis 17:2)

CONCLUSION: To truly become a member of the House of Abraham, to distinguish oneself from the Pagans, and in order to fulfill the laws of God as commanded by Jesus, all Christians should now circumcise all their male sons by the age of 18.

VIII. To Remove all Pagan Customs

BIBLE: They…leave their children uncircumcised, and make their souls abominable with all manner of uncleanness and profanation. (I Maccabees 1:48 )

CONCLUSION: Today, a growing number of Jewish and Christian mothers leave their sons uncircumcised. In the years to come, more and more Pagans will become hostile to Christianity and to the practice of circumcision. Oppose the Pagans.

IX. To Convert the Jews & Muslims

BIBLE: Ishmael…was thirteen years old, when he was circumcised. (Genesis 17:25) Abraham circumcised his son Isaac at eight days old, as God had commanded him. (Genesis 21:4)

CONCLUSION: Jews and Muslims would more likely convert to a Christianity that practices circumcision. 

X. In Tribute to the Early Saints

BIBLE: Mattathias and his allies…forcibly circumcised any uncircumcised boys whom they found in the territory of Israel…They save the law from the hands of the Gentiles. (I Maccabees 2:45)

CONCLUSION: The first 5 Saints of Christianity, St. Judas, Jonathan, John, Simon, and Eleazar were all circumcised Jews who fought against the Greeks who butchered anyone that practiced or opposed the new law that banned circumcision.

Maccabee Christianity is fully supportive of the practice of circumcision by those of the Christian faith. Indeed, read carefully, Scriptures seem to indicate that the practice of circumcision may well be destined to become universal among all men on planet Earth. History, and the Bible, stands as a clear warning to those who would so blithely disdain male circumcision as a barbaric custom of the past. Here are just a few pertinent quotes:

In those days there appeared in Israel men who were breakers of the law, and they seduced many people…They covered over the mark of their circumcision and abandoned the holy covenant; they allied themselves with the Gentiles and sold themselves into wrongdoing.

– I Maccabees 1:11-15

Women who had their babies circumcised were put to death, in keeping with the decree, with the babies hung from their necks; their families also and those who had circumcised them were killed.

– I Maccabees 1:60-61

The King sent messengers with letter to Jerusalem and to the cities of Judah, ordering them to follow customs foreign to the land…to leave their sons uncircumcised, and to let themselves be defiled with every kind of impurity and abomination.

– I Maccabees 1:44-48

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

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The Hammer of God, Part V. In Search of the Maccabee Tombs

January 15, 2011

“Is not My word like fire?” declares the LORD, “and like a hammer which shatters a rock?”

– Jeremiah 23:29

The Hammer of God

‘Maccabee’ is the word for Hammer in Hebrew

Part V. In Search of the Maccabee Tombs

Maccabee Tomb

Most Probable Site of the Maccabee Tombs

Jerusalem of the Second Temple period was surrounded by cemeteries and grave fields. Due to the sanctity of the city and the ritual impurity of the dead, burial was permitted only at reasonable distance from the city walls.

-Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Baba Bathra 2, 9

In general, the exact location of the original Maccabee tombs continues to remain a matter of dispute. A growing number of experts are becoming more confident that they are located just outside of the hometown of the Maccabees, called Modein. Even so, several sites that can be classified as Hasmonean tombs, including Jason’s Tomb, have been identified and can be seen as follows:

Hasmonean Tomb of Zachariah by hasmonean 

Zachariah’s Tomb, a Hasmonean Gravesite

The Maccabee Tomb of Jason by hasmonean

Jason’s Tomb, Rehavia, Jerusalem

Historically, the Maccabees are considered the founders of the Hasmonean dynasty which ruled ruled Judea and Israel until the days of Herod, an Edomite, who managed to murder all the remaining Hasmoneans directly related to the original five sons of Mattathias the Hasmonean, namely John Gaddis, Simon Thassi, Judas Maccabaeus, Eleazar Avaran, and Jonathan Apphus. Here is the original timeline of the beginning of the Hasmonean royal dynasty:

Leader(s) of the Maccabees Timeline
167 BC: Mattathias, the Hasmonean
166 – 161 BC: Judas Maccabaeus, the Hammer of the LORD
161 – 143 BC: Jonathan Apphus, the Wary
143 – 135 BC: Simon Thassi, the Zealous Guide

Although the Maccabees, and later their descendants, the Hasmoneans, managed to keep Israel free from foreign oppression for almost 150 years, this abruptly ended with King Herod who was not a Hasmonean at all. Wikipedia states the following:

The Hasmonean dynasty, which leaped onto the stage of history with such dramatic heroism, disappeared from that same stage with cruel suddenness. The despot Herod, whose régime was forced upon the unwilling Jewish populace by his Romans overlords, was fully aware that the aura of Hasmonean charisma would constitute a continual threat to his power, and hence he undertook to ruthlessly murder all the remaining descendants of that family, including his beloved wife Mariamne, granddaughter of the Hasmonean ruler Hyrcanus II. Herod executed her on trumped-up charges of disloyalty, as he did afterwards to the two sons she had borne him, Alexander and Aristobulus.

– Wikipedia

Thus, while many of the later Hasmonean tombs have been correctly identified, the Maccabee Tombs themselves have yet to completely verified and agreed upon by the various experts in history and archaeology. In general it is believed that the Tombs of the Maccabees are located west of Jerusalem in the Ben-Shemen Forest region right nearby the modern Israeli city of Modi’in, Israel. Historically, this is very close to where the original Maccabee rebellion first began against the Greek occupation. One source describes the site in the following manner:

Ancient cave-tombs riddle the area, but the Maccabee-country location of this cluster of limestone tombs, which appears to be that of one family, and their old Arabic name – “tombs of the Jews”- persuade many that the Maccabees were buried here. Hanukkah ceremonies honoring the ancient warriors have been held here for the past century.

– GoIsrael.com

Here are just a few pictures of the vicinity where the original Maccabees are believed to have been buried. Further research and scientific digs will most probably reveal additional information in the future. For the most part, the vast majority of professionals agree that this is the most probable location of the remains of Mattathias the Hasmonean along with his five sons, the Maccabee Brothers:

The Tombs of the Maccabees  

Tomb of the Maccabees

photo 

Site of the Maccabee Tombs

photo
Maccabee Tombs 

photo 

Location of Maccabee Tombs

Maccabee Tomb Graphic

The Maccabee Tombs

searchresult_watermark.phptombmaccabee by hasmonean

General Location of the Maccabee Tombs

May the LORD GOd bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

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The Hammer of God, Part IV. The Righteous Maccabee Legacy called the Sicarii

January 13, 2011

“Is not My word like fire?” declares the LORD, “and like a hammer which shatters a rock?”

– Jeremiah 23:29

The Hammer of God

The Maccabee stands for Hammer in Hebrew

Part IV. The Righteous Maccabee Legacy called the Sicarii

The Oldest Secret Tradition in the World
The War of the Maccabees that was fought against the sexually perverted Greek occupiers of Israel resulted in the revival of a tradition that had lain dormant within Judaism for literally thousands of years. For the first time since the Hebrew slave rebellion led by Moses against Pharaoh and the Egyptians, an ultra-secret society was formed with the sole purpose of protecting both Judaism and the Jewish people from any external threats. Legend has it that their symbol was the all-seeing eye below the pyramid, much like the back-side of the Great Seal of the United States turned upside down. Others believe it was simply the Star of David, also known as the Seal of Solomon.

Solomon was in a different category, because he ruled over the denizens of the upper world as well as of the lower.

– Babylonian Talmud, Mo’ed IV, Megillah 11b

This secret society, whose members included both the Sadducees and the Pharisees, later became known as the Sicarii, the only group that had actual contact with the Jewish dead. They saw themselves as enforcers of the Law and were instrumental in forming a Jewish educational network that taught literally all Jews the fundamentals of their religion along with basic reading and writing skills, something that had never been done before. Indeed, the Jews were the first people in history to have almost an entirely literate population. The result of this universal religious schooling was a substantial increase in the number of Zealots, pious Jews who knew the Torah, as well as a huge surplus of devout and well-educated Jews who settled throughout the Greco-Roman Empire and excelled in business and commerce. During the rise of Pagan Rome, the overall population of Jews increased exponentially due to their preference for large families and their religious ban on abortions, infanticide, or birth control, something which the Pagans practiced quite frequently.

It could be claimed that the secret tradition of Jewish independence from Gentile rule or enslavement and the underground brotherhood that kept this unwritten tradition alive originated with Abraham and was passed down by word of mouth, from father to son, until it culminated in the Sicarii brotherhood many centuries later. The exact lineage can be seen in the following manner:

Abraham –> The Twelve Sons of Israel –> The Priests of Midian –> The Maccabees

The Sicarii, the Rebels of the Suprenatural
The Sicarii were basically hard-core descendants of the Maccabean tradition, some by blood, others by initiation. Rites of passage included learning how to stare directly at the sun without going blind, eating feces and drinking urine to open the mind’s eye, drinking salt-water to induce both diarrhea and vomiting thus clearing the bowels of any unwanted elements.

Every one is (morally) blind until his eyes are opened for him from above.

– Genesis Rabba 53

Further studies included the self-mastering of both dreams and visions- in other words, the conscious control of both the subconscious and unconscious world. This was followed by the teaching of more advanced skills such as remote viewing, detecting ghosts and other spirits, invisibility, telepathy between fellow members and their spouses, and even lycanthropy itself. Jesus and His apostles were also adept at these supernatural, miraculous talents that included healing and exorcisms of evil spirits. The following chart describes some of these supernatural gifts, what the later Church would refer to as gifts of the Holy Ghost, or Charisms:

Operation Biblical Passage
Rock Song
Staring at the Sun Then shall the righteous shine forth as the sun in the kingdom of their Father. (Matthew 13:43)
You’re not the only one staring at the sun afraid of what you’d find if you stepped back inside. – Staring at the Sun, by U2
Ingesting Feces and Urine To the men that sit upon the wall, that they may eat their own dung, and drink their own piss with you. (Isaiah 36:12), And another one gone, and another one gone…Hey, I’m going get you too…Another one bites the dust.
– Another One Bite the Dust, by Queen
Drinking Salt Water
You are the salt of the earth: but if the salt have lost his savor…it is thenceforth good for nothing, but to be cast out, and to be trodden under foot of men. (Matthew 5:13)
I’m stepping into the twilight zone…Place is a madhouse feels like being cloned…So you’ll come to know when the bullet hits the bone. – Till the Bullet hits the Bone, by Earrings Golden
Detecting Ghosts All manner of sin and blasphemy will be forgiven…but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost will not be forgiven. (Matthew 12:31) All we are is dust in the wind… Nothing lasts forever but the earth and sky. It slips away and all your money won’t another minute buy.   – Dust in the Wind, by Kansas
Remote Viewing
And the devil, taking Him up unto a high mountain, showed…Him all the kingdoms of the world in a moment of time. (Luke 4:5) Sundown you better take care If I find you been creeping around my back stairs. She’s…looking like a queen in a sailor’s dream.  – Sundown, by Gordon Lightfoot
Invisibility
They took…up stones to cast at Him: but Jesus hid Himself, and went out of the temple, going through the midst of them, and so passed by. (John 8:59)
He got early warning. He got muddy water…He say ‘One and one and one is three,’ got to be good-looking because he’s so hard to see. Come together. – Come Together, by The Beatles
Telepathy The LORD said…Why did Sarah laugh, saying, Shall I…bear a child, when I am old? Then Sarah denied, saying, I laughed not; for she was afraid. He said, ‘Nay you did laugh.’ (Genesis18:13-15)
Tell me what you find when you read my mind…Put your back on me, put your back on me. The stars are blazing like rebel diamonds cut out of the sun when you read my mind. – Read my Mind, by The Killers
Lyncanthropy Who knows that the spirit of man goes upward, and that the spirit of the beast goes downward to the earth? (Ecclesiastes 3:21)
I hope we’re not too messianic or a trifle too satanic…I am just a monkey man…I’m glad you are a…monkey woman. I’m a monkey, I’m a monkey. – Monkey Man, by The Rolling Stones

In addition to this, several of the most exceptional members of the Sicarii, some living some dead, could also use mind reading, thought control, clairvoyance, levitation, teleportation, and were capable of spiritually possessing other people. They weren’t magicians or sorcerers in any manner and Simon Magus was certainly not one of them. For the most part, they viewed their ‘magic’ abilities as deriving from the LORD God and were wary of the Biblical prohibitions against witchcraft and sorcery. They practiced their arts with extreme caution and humility, always fearing they might offend God by accident. An explanatory chart of their more advanced abilities is as follows:

Operation Pertinent Biblical Passage
Mind Reading
Thus says the LORD God of Israel…Why have you despised the commandment of the LORD, to do evil in His sight? You have killed Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and have taken his wife to be thy wife. (II Samuel 12:7-9)
Thought Control
The LORD hardened Pharaoh’s heart, so that he would not let the children of Israel go. (Exodus 10:20)
Clairvoyance
When you…see the abomination of desolation…standing where it should not, (let him that reads this understand) then let them that be in Judaea flee to the mountains. (Mark 13:14)
Levitation
And in the fourth watch of the night Jesus went unto them, walking on the sea. And when the disciples saw Him walking on the sea, they were troubled…and they cried out for fear. (Matthew 14:25-26)
Teleportation
If you have faith, and doubt not…you shall say unto this mountain, be thou removed, and be thou cast into the sea; it shall be done. (Matthew 21:21)
Spiritual Possession
Then Satan entered into Judas surnamed Iscariot, being of the number of the twelve. (Luke 22:3)

With gratitude, the Sicarii looked upon their own personal talents as spiritual gifts bestowed upon them directly by the LORD God. This was quite different from the Pagans’ perception that miraculous abilities came from themselves personally rather than from an external, divine source such as the Hebrew God. For the most part, the Sicarii used their ‘magical’ skills in a precise manner, much like a doctor uses a scalpel for surgery.

The Righteous Knives of the Sicarii
In time, and because of their rage over the Jews who betrayed them and allied themselves with Rome and their sodomite gods, the Sicarii sometimes resorted to political violence and assassination. Wikipedia writes the following:

The Sicarii resorted to terror to obtain their objective. Under their cloaks they concealed sicae, or small daggers, from which they received their name. At popular assemblies, particularly during the pilgrimage to the Temple Mount, they stabbed their enemies (Romans or Roman sympathizers, Herodians, and wealthy Jews comfortable with Roman rule), lamenting ostentatiously after the deed to blend into the crowd to escape detection. Literally, Sicarii meant “dagger-men”.

In truth, the Sicarii were far more than a terrorist sect seeking political independence from Rome. They were folk-heroes, much like Robin Hood, and would have heartily agreed with the sentiment to ‘steal from the rich to give to the poor.’ When they could, the Sicarii would purchase back poor Jews who had been sold into slavery, help young Jewish women leave the life of prostitution, and protect Jewish property from being vandalized or stolen. Many times, their members would work as bodyguards for rich Jews guarding plantations, mansions, and traveling caravans. Not all of them were strictly law-abiding, however. The ancient tradition of defecating and leaving a fresh pile of feces in the homes of the rich after burglarizing them and stealing their possessions was originally a Sicarii tradition that has survived up to the present day.

Not all the Sicarii were thieves and the ones that were would tend to burglarize non-Jewish homes such as tax-collectors, slave-traders or Pagan government officials. Theft was still considered a wicked, greedy sin by the upper echelons of the Sicarii hierarchy. If they ever did steal from their fellow Jews, it was from those rich Jews who no longer practiced Judaism and, instead, affiliated with their Roman oppressors even going so far as to worship the Pagan gods.

Little known to most modern historians, it was the Sicarii who kept the Jewish districts safe and clean throughout the entire Roman Empire. Unlike their Pagan neighbors, who would leave their own elderly and unwanted infants outside the city’s gates to be killed and eaten by wild, scavenger dogs, the Sicarii helped to care for all Jews, including the poor, orphans and widows. They did not allow raw sewage, or garbage, to build up in Jewish neighborhoods.

Outside the camp you shall have a place set aside to be used as a toilet. You shall also keep a shovel in your equipment and with it, when you go outside to ease nature, you shall first dig a hole and afterward cover up your excrement. For the LORD thy God walks in the midst of your camp, to deliver you…therefore shall your camp be holy: that he sees no unclean thing…and turn away from you.

– Deuteronomy 23:13-15

Contrary to those who dislike them, the Sicarii also showed pity upon as many deserving Gentiles as they could and would often sympathize with those outsiders who made an effort to worship the God of Israel and abide by Jewish law. They were not near as ‘racist,’ tribalistic, or ethnocentric as some critics might contend. Indeed, many were born and raised far away from their homeland. More than a few Sicarii were from humble origins and had mixed blood. As the Babylonian Talmud states:

We support the poor of the heathen along with the poor of Israel, and visit the sick of the heathen along with the sick of Israel, and bury the poor of the heathen along with the dead of Israel in the interests of peace.

– Babylonian Talmud, Nashim IV, Gittin 61a

Throughout the vast Jewish diaspora that existed within the Empire, the Sicarii provided an impenetrable defense against Pagan criminal predators of all varieties. They would walk the streets of Jewish neighborhoods throughout the night keeping the Jewish masses safe in their homes until the break of day. Because of the sexually perverted practices of many Pagan Greco-Romans, which included pedophilia, incest and homosexuality, the Sicarii were always careful to ensure the chastity of all young Jewish children. Although it probably seldom ever occurred, a standard practice of the Sicarii was to hunt down and castrate any Pagan who was guilty of raping a Jewish child, or adult, for that matter. They allowed the rapist to live only to show the other Gentiles what would happen to them if they dared touch any Jew in a sexually aggressive manner. As the Bible states:

Dinah, the daughter of Leah, which she bare unto Jacob, went out to see the daughters of the land…Shechem, the son of Hamor the Hivite, prince of the country, saw her, he took her, and lay with her, and raped her…And Shechem spoke unto his father Hamor, saying, Get me this damsel for my wife…And Jacob heard that he had raped Dinah his daughter…And the sons of Jacob came out of the field when they heard it: and the men were grieved, and they were very angry, because he had wrought folly in Israel in raping Jacob’s daughter; a thing which should never be done….And Hamor communed with them, saying, The soul of my son Shechem longs for your daughter: I pray you give her him to wife…And they said unto them, We cannot do this thing, to give our sister to one that is uncircumcised…Simeon and Levi, Dinah’s brothers…came upon the city boldly, and slew all the males…And they slew Hamor and Shechem his son with the edge of the sword, and took Dinah out of Shechem’s house, and went out…The sons of Jacob came upon the slain, and spoiled the city, because they had raped their sister.

– Genesis 34:1-27

Any Pagans, including Roman centurions, who repeatedly mistreated, harassed, or violently threatened the Empire’s Jewish citizens to any great extent would often find themselves dead with their throats cut in some back alley after they refused to leave the Jews alone. Long before the Mafia, there was the Sicarri who did not indulge in gambling, extortion, or prostitution. Indeed, they were instrumental in helping fellow Jews steer clear of these wicked practices. However, they would, in fact, smoke hashish quite frequently and drink large amounts of beer and wine when they were available. There is substantial historical evidence that the ancient Jews grew and smoked marijuana, even using it as medicine. To the upper-class Greco-Romans, the Sicarii were considered a criminal nuisance that posed a potential threat to their establishment. To the pious Rabbis, they were a dirty, sinful bunch of odd-fellows that helped protect vulnerable Jews from the dangerous Gentile hordes- a necessary evil that provided safety for the Jewish lower classes. For many ordinary Jews, however, they were revered as heroes, protectors, and guardians of the Law. In modern times, Jewish Bolsheviks and socialist revolutionaries often thought of themselves in the same manner, seeing themselves as 20th century Maccabees. Beautiful Jewish maidens from rich and/or devout families would swoon at the sight of these handsome, wild outlaws only to be scolded by their parents that they were not meant to ever marry a mere Sicarri, who were mostly lower class Jewish commoners. The answer was no, absolutely not, before their daughters could even ask the question.

More than a few Sicarii never married and would satisfy their lusts with suitable partners behind closed doors. These included Pagan widows, demonic Gentile prostitutes, and lonely noble Greco-Roman ladies whose husbands preferred other males. Any offspring they produced were given to suitable Jewish families or were allowed to be brought up in wealthy Pagan households just as Moses had been thousands of years before. Sometimes, their Sicarii fathers would actually return to reclaim them when they had grown older and would then teach them the ancient Jewish traditions of the forefathers, especially male circumcision. Being somewhat ecumenical, the Sicarii would sometimes even recruit sincere Gentiles to join them. During the eighth day of initiation, the standard practice was to give the newcomer a sharp dagger and have them slice off their own foreskins and throw it into the fire rather than having an actual Rabbi perform the procedure. This ritual made them a fellow Hebrew and spiritual son of Abraham.

The Sicarii brotherhood was the primary factor behind the Jewish revolt against Rome which ended in disaster and the destruction of both Jerusalem and the Second Temple. Legend has it that giant sodomites came down from Mount Olympus and tore the Jewish Temple to pieces. When direct violence against the enemy gods proved to be a failure, some of them took to the new movement of Christianity. Much like second or third-generation mafia mobsters, they decided to go legitimate and the Christian religion ended up thriving due to their subtle influence and the generous protection they provided. Having seen more than a few ghosts in their time, many of the Sicarii probably had no problem with the belief that Jesus rose from the dead.

Some modern scholars, almost all Protestant, have attempted to link the Apostle Judas Iscariot to the Sicarii due to the similarity in spelling. One historian writes: ‘A second theory is that “Iscariot” identifies Judas as a member of the Sicarii. These were a cadre of assassins among Jewish rebels intent on driving the Romans out of Judea.’ The fact of the matter is that Judas Maccabeus and his legacy known as the Sicarii had absolutely nothing to do with Judas Iscariot and the betrayal of Jesus Christ. Anything else is Protestant ignorance, hostility and deliberate defamation of the heroic Maccabee brothers, especially of St. Judas Maccabeus.

The Dark Sicarii Roots of Christianity
In time, the Sicarii and the Maccabees faded into obscurity and became simply one of the many traditions of the Roman Catholic Church which became less and less Jewish over time. Because of their influence, however, the early Church fathers and other Christians also learned the secret arts of the Holy Ghost, both black ‘magic’ and white ‘magic’, and began displaying the same exceptional abilities that the Sicarii had previously kept completely hidden from public view. In stark contrast to the Sicarii tendency to cover up the supernatural, the Christians openly flaunted their miraculous talents, causing many of the overly superstitious Pagan Gentiles to convert to this new religion. In some respects, the Sicarii brotherhood was the original, enchanted cornerstone of the early Church. Official Christian investigators later developed procedures to record and document genuine miracles of God, long after the legendary Menorah candle that stayed lit for eight days. As it now stands today, Judaism still insists that the last miracle of God occurred during Hanukkah around 2,150 years ago. The Roman Catholic Church believes that supernatural miracles are still occurring even today and will continue to occur until the second coming of Jesus Christ.

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus, the Hammer of God.

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The Hammer of God, Part III. The Supernatural Maccabee Rebellion Against Mt. Olympus

January 12, 2011

“Is not My word like fire?” declares the LORD, “and like a hammer which shatters a rock?”

– Jeremiah 23:29

The Hammer of God

The Maccabee stands for Hammer in Hebrew

Part III. The Supernatural Maccabee Rebellion Against Mt. Olympus

Telepathy, Sexuality, and the War of the Maccabees
Sometimes, living men and women have been forced to use somewhat nontraditional, heterodox means in order to establish telepathic communication. Though the Church remains extremely unlikely to ever officially admit to their existence, there are, in fact, certain methods that can assist God-fearing individuals in obtaining telepathic and perhaps other supernatural abilities (See St. Judas and the Temple of the Black Diamond). Indeed, legends indicate that these somewhat unorthodox practices were of vital importance in helping Judas Maccabeus and his brothers win the civil war against the Greek occupiers of ancient Israel and their sexually degenerate, and many times uncircumcised, Jewish allies.

Apparently, Judas Maccabeus, the rebel leader, began receiving reports early on indicating that an elite cabal of homosexual Jews and Greeks were using long-distance telepathy as a part of their military operations, including coded written messages in both Greek and Hebrew. Truth be told, it is unclear whether or not the Maccabees and their religious allies were even familiar with telepathic communication. They probably had some experience with it through personal interaction with the wild, desert prophets and other religious authorities, but it is quite obvious that they had little to no idea about how to harness it effectively in order to win the war.

Historically speaking, there is some evidence that telepathy played a role in the successful slave rebellion led by Moses and Aaron against the Egyptians. Indeed, Aaron and his sister Miriam were probably both highly telepathic along with many of the other early Levites. Several scholars will also claim that forty years of wandering in the desert, where most of the Israelites fed themselves with the mysterious manna (Red Dragon fat) provided by God for years on end, eventually caused many, if not all, of the families involved to become very telepathic. Nevertheless, it is more than possible that the power of telepathy had become almost completely forgotten by most of the Israelites during the Age of the Maccabees more than a thousand years later.

Regardless of the specifics, Judas Maccabeus quickly discovered through spies that frenzied homosexual orgies, including high-powered anal and oral sex, along with the frequent, mutual swallowing of semen, may have been involved in the Greeks seemingly Divine telepathic powers. Apparently, these hyper-sexualized rituals, which took place both outdoors in public, as well in total darkness in underground chambers, were causing the participants to become demonically-possessed, telepathic beings, who were able to see through each other’s eyes. They were also using remote viewing to track rebel troop movements and hunt down those Jews still practicing Orthodox Judaism.

Her feet go down to death; her steps take hold on Hell.

– Proverbs 5:3-5

In addition, it is quite possible that these evil, wicked enemies of God were eating each other’s feces and urine and staring directly at the sun for long periods of time in order to manifest these powers. Put bluntly, at least some of them were looking into the sun while committing sodomy. It was truly a time of the Beast 666 and his motives could be clearly seen by the sexual immorality that had completely taken over the Temple of Jerusalem. This intensified the evil in an intolerable and utterly disgusting way.

The Gentiles filled the Temple with debauchery and revelry; they amused themselves with [male] prostitutes and had intercourse with women even in the sacred court.

– II Maccabees 6:3-4

One could say that either one, or perhaps all, of these particular activities were the real cause of the homosexual Jews and Greeks developing telepathic and other supernatural powers. Because of his desperate circumstances, however, Judas Maccabeus did not have the time to verify exactly what was behind his opponent’s paranormal abilities. Because of this, he immediately ordered at least some of his followers to eat and drink their own, as well as their fellow warrior’s feces and urine. After some trial and error, those involved were told to eat only the hard, rock-like feces that contained numerous, round, small balls like the various, tiny shit-heads of little people. To develop a strong, defensible telepathic communication system, some of them stopped eating anything at all, except for whatever they could find in the wilderness, where they remained in hiding during the early part of the war. The rebels also smoked large amounts of marijuana and/or hashish to soothe their hunger pangs. The Bible states as follows:

Judas Maccabeus with nine others…withdrew himself into the wilderness, and lived in the mountains after the manner of beasts, with his company, who fed on herbs continually, lest they should be partakers of the pollution.

– II Maccabees 5:27

It is also possible that, in desperation, Judas Maccabeus allowed his married soldiers to practice oral sex with their wives, who would then swallow their husband’s semen in order to establish a strong, telepathic connection. Sometimes the link became powerful enough for the wives to see through their husbands’ eyes and hear their thoughts. It is said that more than a few of these couples became telepathic quite quickly and began having the exact same dreams. Throughout the war, married wives helped to relay strategically important messages sent by their scout husbands over long-distances. Fortunately for the Maccabees, this private, two-way method of telepathy between husband and wife eventually became impossible for the sexually perverted enemy to intercept or cause interference. The most probable explanation for this is that the Divinely-sanctioned, monogamous, heterosexual love between the two spouses may have helped to shield their messages from the almost completely homosexual Jewish and Greek telepaths trying to decipher them.

Matches are made in heaven.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Genesis Rabba 68

In three different places…are we told that heaven appoints the wife of a man.

– The Babylonian Talmud, Genesis Rabba 68

This new-found technique of undetectable, heterosexual telepathy completely enraged the sexually degenerate occupiers of the Kingdom of Israel, causing them to resort to human sacrifice and cannibalism in the Temple of Jerusalem in an attempt to increase their diabolical, supernatural powers. They also proceeded to take out their frustrations upon many of the unarmed, innocent civilians, perpetrating numerous, hideous atrocities against any and all suspected Jewish sympathizers, yet completely leaving any Greek or other foreign residents alone.

[Jason] commanded his men of war not to spare [anyone]…and to slay…[all of them]. Thus there was killing of young and old, making away of men, women, and children, slaying of virgins and infants.

– II Maccabees 5:12-13

In retrospect, the possible practice of the Maccabees in allowing or encouraging  oral sex between a married man and woman, which is prohibited by Jewish law and still defined in the Dictionary as sodomy, was a sinful, ungodly way to defeat the enemies of Israel that should have never been used. Contrary to the wicked, Satanically-inspired, deceivers of the truth who might insist otherwise, Judas Maccabeus never authorized any other abnormal sexual activity in order to develop supernatural powers and severely punished any of his fellow allies who were caught practicing anything except monogamous, heterosexual vaginal intercourse within the sacred bonds of marriage. Even consensual, heterosexual fornication between two unmarried people was punished by the traditional twenty-five, extremely painful lashings with a whip, inflicted on both the male and female offenders.

Daniel, my brother, you are older than me. Do you still feel the pain of the scars that won’t heal? Your eyes have died, but you see more than I. Daniel you’re a star in the face of the sky.

– Daniel, by Elton John

Throughout the military campaign and afterwards, Judas demanded total abstinence from all his followers, even though their Greek enemies promoted, encouraged, and even celebrated degenerate sexual activity in order to achieve telepathic abilities and to summon evil powers to help them defeat the Jews. In the end, the Maccabees basically concluded that the fairly disgusting, highly unsanitary, and possibly lethal, ingestion of feces and urine was, in fact, the primary ingredient that actually helped facilitate telepathy among his soldiers. Staring directly at the sun was another probable method Judas Maccabeus utilized in order to create a strategic system of telepathy that included encoded written messages, commonly known as the Word of God.

Got a revolution behind my eyes, we got to get up and organize. Got a revolution behind my eyes, we got to get up and organize…You want a revolution behind your eyes, we got to get up and organize.

– Battleflag, by Lo Fidelity Allstars

The legends state that, although the five brothers of the Maccabees never lost their own eyesight, some of the less fortunate troops did go completely blind in their search for supernatural powers. In fact, it is claimed that the mysterious seven watchtowers of Joarib, originally set up as a defensive measure to protect the God-fearing, loyal Israelites that opposed the sexually perverted Jews and Greeks ruling over them, was little more than a 24-hour system of elite soldiers who would stand up and look directly at the sun in shifts all day long. This was also done in order to guard the headquarters of the telepathic, military intelligence corps who played a key role in winning the war of the Maccabees. Urgent written messages from the front would sometimes arrive via the sun and would then be passed on to the appropriate rebel leaders.

Oh, let the sun beat down upon my face, stars to fill my dream. I am a traveler of both time and space, to be where I have been, to sit with elders of the gentle race, this world has seldom seen. They talk of days for which they sit and wait, [when] all will be revealed. Talk and song from tongues of lilting grace…but not a word I heard could I relay, the story was quite clear.

– Kashmir, by Led Zeppelin

May the LORD God bless you in the name of St. Judas Maccabaeus.

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